How do Pilots Navigate Through Airspace?

If you’ve ever flown on a plane, you may have wondered exactly how it all works. Unless you’re an aerospace engineer, then the dynamics of flight are tough to understand. But what about navigation? There are so many unanswered questions.

Is it all done on auto-pilot or do pilots have to plan their routes? How is it that a pilot knows where they’re going? How are they able to follow a flight path? What about when it’s dark or you’re hovering above the ocean?

For those who are curious, here are the techniques and tools a pilot uses to navigate during flight.

Logbooks and Charts

In the majority of countries, pilots must keep a logbook. Purchased from suppliers like Flightstore, a logbook contains training and simulator time, dates, times and lengths of flights, the number of landings completed. Logbooks can also be used for approaches, mapping and navigation purposes. Pilots must regularly update their logs, both to comply with regulation and to meet criteria for ratings and certificates.

Radio and Beacons

In addition to mapping and planning, pilots also use radio to navigate. In addition to using radio for communication, this system operates via beacons, which are fixed at locations across the world and emit radio signals. This signal is transmitted to the cockpit of an aircraft to provide information on location and navigation. Beacons are also used at airports to assist pilots with landing.

GPS Systems

From time to time, you may rely on GPS to help you reach your location. GPS is now commonly used in aircraft, too, helping pilots to navigate. However, if you’ve ever become frustrated with a GPS that sends you off in the wrong direction, or else takes an age to acquire satellite signal, then you will know that they’re not always reliable. As such, radio and manual logs are often used as backup.

Celestial Guidance

This is a practice that has been replaced by technology and as such, is rarely used by pilots in real-world situations today. In days gone by, to navigate in the dark, pilots learnt how to fly using the stars, creating paths and charts using a sextant. During flight, pilots would then use so-called ‘eyebrow’ windows – tiny windows that sit above the larger cockpit window – to get a clear view of the stars in the sky.

If you’ve ever been curious about how a pilot navigates, hopefully this has helped to answer some of your questions. To sum up, pilots largely use radio and GPS navigate through the sky.

Photo credit: Fuzz

Getting More for Your Money when Buying Commercial Property

For any investment you make, getting value for money is a must. You don’t want to buy a new property, only for it to depreciate in value in a matter of weeks. Commercial properties – shops, offices, warehouses. pubs and hotels – are no exception, so it pays to look after them and market them to would-be tenants in the best way possible.

Firstly, you need to consider what property you want or can afford to buy. Check your bank balance and, if you can, talk to your bank and ask for their advice. Then, you will know what properties are affordable. Then, you can begin the long search for that money-making property!

The next step is to choose what property you would like to buy and its location. Remember that demand for commercial properties varies regionally. The most recent survey from RICS found that although demand rose in the final quarter of 2016 UK-wide, it fell slightly in London.

How Much?

Booking a viewing will involve getting a valuation. A commercial property valuation from GVA Grimley will give you an accurate figure. Getting a valuation is essential so that you know what you’re able to afford and how much you can rent your property out for, if you fancy doing so to get the most for your money.

After buying the property, the next step involves preparing it for rent. Contact a surveyor and a registered building firm to see what, if anything, needs fixing. Then, go about renovating it and, by the end of the whole process, your property will be ready to rent.

Available for Rent

When putting it up for rent, try to make your new commercial property look as presentable as possible. Make sure the walls, windows, roof and doors are as clean as can be, whilst any garden or parking area should be equally well-kept. Then, figure out who to market it to.

At the moment, the people most likely to rent are those who don’t have the means to buy their own properties outright. Small businesses, particularly those in the retail and leisure sectors, are worth pitching your new property to.

Once you have found a tenant, make sure you ask them to:

  • Keep the property tidy – this makes it easier for you to rent it out to new tenants
  • Make sure they have all the relevant paperwork – trading licenses, for example
  • Pay their rent on time – check that they have the money to pay you

If your property is large enough, consider splitting it up into units. For storage or small shops, this is ideal. You will, however, need to ask your local council for planning permission.

How to avoid speeding fines

Speeding is not only an incident of frequent traffic rule violation, but is also the most common cause of traffic related accidents all round the world. Driving over the limit of the permitted speed in NSW will almost certainly result in fines, in addition to demerit points being marked against your driving record and in extreme cases result in suspension of the driving licence.

The speeding fines nsw, however, vary with the excess of speed you are driving at, the place where you are speeding and the type of driving licence you are holding. However, what is normally presumed to be a minor act of indiscretion, can these days result in being deprived of the right to drive.This can further lead to financial loss arising out of loss of employment.

 The only logical way to avoid a speeding fine is simply not to overspeed.This is again easier said than done, even for the most disciplined driver, as he is bound to break the limit inadvertently, in exceptional cases, such as while overtaking or going on a long downhill run. Speeding fine in NSW are responsible for a lion’s share of the revenue of the State and there is no escape from the reality that at some time or the other, the most careful of motorists can find themselves on the wrong side of the law.

To avoid a speeding fine there are two options available to the motorist.The first is to challenge the speed alleged and the second to admit that you made an honest and reasonable mistake.

In the first case, though speed infringements are tracked with a speed measuring device, there are instances when tickets are issued based on an estimate by the police officer. This creates room for doubt and can be challenged in the court.

 If, in the second case, you believe you have made an honest mistake in the assessment of the speed limit then there may be a defence available to you. For example, your speedometer may be wrongly calibrated and showing the wrong speed. If ascertained by a mechanic, then this could become ample evidence to overturn your charge, as now the onus will be on the prosecution to prove whether the mistake was honest or not.

The first reaction of most drivers is to act innocent when confronted with a speed ticket. This is not an easy task as the traffic light camera may prove otherwise. In such cases it is always advisable to utilise the services of an experienced lawyer. A good reputed attorney will easily guide you through the complex hurdles involving in disputing traffic offences. Not only that, he will present an aggressive and sound defense against the penalty imposed and help you save your money. Remember, if you plead guilty and pay the fine, there are still chances of demerit points being added and your license getting suspended. If, however, you deny the incident altogether, there are better chances of you getting acquitted, especially if you have a top notch lawyer representing you.

 Image: Jingoba

Clever Ways to Market Your Business

You know that you have to market your business, but sometimes it can be difficult to get excited about the idea when you see that so many companies are doing the exact same thing. You want to be different because your company is difference, you want to look at new ways of reaching your potential customers without reverting to the same old tactics. The good news is that you can. The better news is that if you do it properly, you’ll be handsomely rewarded, too.

Saying Goodbye To Traditional Methods

If you want to have a marketing campaign that stands out from what others doing, then, well, you’re going to have do things differently. This means not doing what’s worked in the past. And this is just as well, because traditional marketing tactics are becoming increasingly obsolete for an audience that is getting smarter and more resistant to obvious advertisements. Television advertisements are still effective, but they cost a lot – and the general shift away from television to online may soon put an end to them anyway. What is on its last legs are banner adverts, which are mostly ignored and will probably be all but gone within a few years anyway.

Getting in with the Media

If you’re a freshly launched company or have another newsworthy angle (new product/anniversary of your opening), then it could be a good idea to get in touch with local media and see if they want to cover your story for their publication. Newspapers and local news channels are always eager for stories, and your activity might be just what they’re looking for – and in return, you’ll be given a free platform to get your company name out there.

The New Word of Mouth

You don’t want to tell people how good your product or service is directly; you want the people they trust to tell them how good your product or service is. How do you do this? By partnering with an influencer marketing agency and have a person of trust promote your business themselves. It’s a bit like word of mouth advertising, but more controllable – and with longer lasting benefits. The impact in terms of increased revenue might not be immediate, but it will eventually come as your company will already have been established as one to trust.

Out on the Streets

Your marketing strategies don’t have to always take place online, and they don’t always have to be just about hard work, either – they can be fun! Hit the streets in your local area and you’ll have the opportunity to engage with people in ways that generally don’t happen. The form of this type of activity can vary; it could be a pop up stand where you give away samples of your product; it could be an event where you invite local artists and musicians to perform; or it could something else, so long as it’s fun and in line with your company branding.

Guerilla Tactics

There’s another way to market on the streets, one that is patently less obvious than just hosting an event with your name on the side. It’s called guerilla marketing and it can take any form you wish so long as it’s stealthily done. An example would be placing cool stickers with your key details listed around town, hosting a flash mob, adding graffiti around town, or sneakily leaving business cards in places frequented by the types of people you think might be interested in your company.

Create a Buzz

If you’re a new company who will be offering a legitimately exciting product or service, then your marketing will begin well before you actually launch. In the run up to your launch, create a buzz and get people hyped about what is to come. This can be simple as having a countdown clock on your website, revealing extra details about your company in each week before your launch, or anything else.  

Thinking Big

In the end, you should be bound by nothing when it comes to marketing your business. There are very few things that are off limits – if it raises awareness of your company and has no chance of harming your reputation, then it’s probably a good idea to go ahead or do it. You could hire a plane to write a message in the sky or pull a publicity stunt (just make it positive); whatever gets people to sit up and pay attention, in effect. So get your thinking caps on and start thinking big about your marketing tactics!

How To Fight Crime And Make Money Too

Photo credit: Negative space

Businesses have always been subject to crime and they likely always will be. Whether it is financial crimes like Ponzi schemes, or racketeering, or money laundering, the risk is always there and as a responsible business owner, it is incumbent upon you to try to prevent it whenever you can. Sometimes it is simple things like employees that steal office supplies, or someone parking illegally outside the building. However, it can often be rather more serious such as embezzlement. In that case, you should speak to a forensic accountant to assess the nature of the crime and then contact the relevant local law enforcement agency.

An area in which many businesses are now particularly vulnerable is cyberspace. The threat that is posed by hackers is serious and should not be taken lightly. They are also quite hard to track and even harder to prosecute, especially if they live in a different jurisdiction or country to you. In any case, there are a few things that you can do. For one, when it comes to something like your company emails, which may contain sensitive information, you should add a layer of encryption. This will not make it impossible for a persistent hacker to get your information but it will make it somewhat more inconvenient. With only a minority of businesses using encryption to protect their data, there isn’t a shortage of potential good targets. It stands to reason that a company that is easier to hack will likely be subject to more attacks than one which is more difficult. Preventing cybercrime against your business is quite obviously in your interests but it also has a broader use which is that if it becomes easier and more acceptable to target businesses, it will become more common. By trying to prevent this particular crime, you establish a deterrent of a sort to those considering committing the same crime in the future.

However, it is not just strangers that you need to be concerned about. People who pose as your customers may wish to use you or your business to commit crimes. One of these may be money laundering. This particular crime is sometimes misunderstood because many people’s only knowledge of it comes from its representation in films. The idea is quite simple: criminals will try to disguise the origins of their money (because they are criminal) and establish what is a seemingly legitimate source. They may wish to wash their money through your business. To help prevent this, you should consider checking their credentials. You can ensure an ID is legitimate with ID scanning services from Jumio. It may seem simple but if a person is committing crimes that require them to launder their money, the chances are that they will also stretch to using a fake ID. If this is the case, you can quickly and efficiently find out and deal with the problem.

Lastly, and perhaps most obviously, you should ensure that you and your employees change their passwords regularly and never use any word or phrase that could be guessed. It is simple advice but it effective and could save you a lot of money in the long run.

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